Monthly Archiv: August, 2019

Scientists record yoctonewton forces

first_img © 2010 PhysOrg.com The researchers, from the University of Sydney, in NSW Australia, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Colorado, USA, have used their system to measure forces three orders of magnitude smaller than any previously measured force. The forces were as small as 174 yoctonewtons, or 174 septillionths of a newton (174 x 10-24 newtons).Professor Michael Biercuk of the University of Sydney and colleagues developed their system using a Penning trap, a device in which ions are confined in two dimensions by a strong magnetic field, and in the third dimension by a weak electrostatic field. About 60 beryllium ions are held in the trap and kept very cold to eliminate motion due to thermal effects. The ions are charged and normally line up in the center of the trap. They are affected by any stray electrical or magnetic fields, which cause them to vibrate and become displaced from the center.Any movement produced by an applied force is detected by reflecting a laser off the ions and measuring any Doppler shift in the frequency of the light. (The light’s frequency is slightly higher when the ion is moving towards the detector, and lower when moving away.) The detection system was able to measure the strength forces in the yoctonewtons range.Until the present experiment, the smallest forces ever measured were in the attonewton range (10-18 newtons). These measurements were made coupling micro- or nano-fabricated resonators to systems such as single-electron transistors, or superconducting microwave cavities. The ability to detect tiny forces is important for applications such as tests of fundamental physical phenomena and precision spin-resonance imaging.The researchers hope to eventually be able to measure a single yoctonewton by using a single beryllium ion in the trap, and they believe their experiments will lead to the development of a new class of sensors based on trapped ions. Their results are published online in the pre-publication blog ArXiv. Scientists develop novel ion trap for sensing force and light Explore further Citation: Scientists record yoctonewton forces (2010, April 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-04-scientists-yoctonewton.htmlcenter_img (PhysOrg.com) — Scientists in Australia and the US have discovered that trapped ions are “exquisitely sensitive” force detectors, and have used them to record the tiniest forces ever measured. Phase-coherent Doppler velocimetry. (a) Atomic resonance employed for detection of ionmotion, 19 MHz. (b) Schematic of the Doppler-detection system based on photon-arrival-time measurements. (c) Schematic of pulse sequencing/triggering for phase-coherent detection. (d) Histogram of photon arrival times relative to start-pulses generated synchronously with an RF excitation of the COM mode on resonance. Photon arrivals are bunched with periodicity given by the driven COM oscillation period, and su er hardware delays. Solid blue line is an exponential t to the data used to remove a background scattering rate. Figure credit: Michael J. Biercuk et al., ArXiv, http://arxiv.org/abs/1004.0780 (see paper for details) This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Report shows data centers not using as much power as projected

center_img © 2010 PhysOrg.com Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img

Cambridge team exposes EMV card vulnerabilities

first_img(Phys.org)—At a cryptography gathering in Leuven, Belgium, on Tuesday, Cambridge University researchers made it known that they do not like what they see in chip and pin systems. Banks rely on customer confidence in their word that chip and pin systems are safe, but the researchers tell quite a different story. Part of the problem has to do with the number generators, which the researchers give a failing grade. Each time a customer is involved in a chip and pin transaction, withdrawing cash or buying goods, a unique unpredictable number is created to authenticate the transaction. The unpredictable number, generated by software, is supposed to be chosen at random. But researchers say the number is highly predictable, because dates or timestamps had been used. www.lightbluetouchpaper.org/20 … the-pre-play-attack/www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~rja14/Papers/unattack.pdf Explore further © 2012 Phys.org More information: Their paper, “Chip and Skim: Cloning EMV Cards with the Pre-play Attack” presents the troubling details of weaknesses in protocol and random number generation which leave customers in the cold as fraud victims. “EMV” is the name given to the system from its original developers Europay, MasterCard and Visa. The system is also known as chip and pin, and is the leading system for card payments, in Europe, much of Asia, and starting to be used in North America. Payment cards contain a chip so they can execute an authentication protocol. POS terminals or ATMs generate the unpredictable number, for each transaction to ensure it is fresh. Some EMV implementers have merely used counters, timestamps or home-grown algorithms to supply this number. This exposes them to a pre-play attack, say the Cambridge team. The researchers find it shocking that many ATMs and point-of-sale terminals have “seriously defective” random number generators, often “just counters.”The study authors also point to a key shortcoming at the protocol level where “the party depending upon freshness in the protocol is not the party responsible for generating it.” Although the issuing bank is depending on the merchant for transaction freshness, they said, the merchant “may not be incentivised to provide it, may not be able to deliver it correctly due to lack of end-to-end authentication with the issuer, and might even be collusive (directly or indirectly).”The study team’s harshest words are for those banks that “suppress information about known vulnerabilities, with the result that fraud victims continue to be denied refunds.” The researchers argue the lack of fairness when any customer who complains of fraud may be told by the bank that since EMVs are secure, the victim is mistaken “or lying when they dispute card transactions.” And yet, said the study, “again and again, the banks have turned out to be wrong.” One vulnerability after another has been discovered and exploited by criminals. They said it has mostly been left to independent security researchers to identify what is happening and to spread the word.The researchers said that, in looking for solutions, it would not be practical to turn to what is a slow and complex negotiation process between merchants, banks and vendors. “It is time for bank regulators to take an interest,” they said. “It’s welcome that the US Federal Reserve is now paying attention, and time for European regulators to follow suit.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Cambridge researchers show Chip and PIN system vulnerable to fraud Citation: Cambridge team exposes EMV card vulnerabilities (2012, September 13) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-09-cambridge-team-exposes-emv-card.htmllast_img read more

Study shows British and Japanese people have very similar touching rules

first_img Most everyone is aware of their own boundaries regarding touching. We like to be touched by people we know and love but cringe if touched inappropriately by a stranger. We also know that we have our own personal rules about who can touch us where and when. But what is not clear is the role that reinforcement of social structure by touching plays in our daily lives. People shake hands as a form of greeting, for example, and in some situations actually hug one another—even strangers. In this new effort, the researchers sought to learn more about how social touch is involved in social network maintenance and reinforcement. To find out, they asked 386 people from the U.K. and 255 people from Japan to sit in front of a computer to answer questions about where it was permissible for people in their lives to touch them and under what circumstances.Not surprisingly, the researchers found that people from both cultures do not like to be touched by people they do not know—most reported that the only acceptable means of doing so was via handshake when meeting someone new. People of both cultures also reported being uncomfortable with seemingly innocuous touching, such as on the arm. On the other end of the spectrum, people from both cultures reported that they were comfortable with romantic partners touching them anyplace on their body. For those people who were neither strangers nor romantic partners, people from both cultures reported feeling more comfortable with touching the closer the bond was with a given individual. Also, the researchers reported that people from both cultures were more comfortable being touched by somebody female, than somebody male, in general. The one difference they found between the two cultures was British people reported feeling more pleasure at being touched socially than did the people from Japan. More information: Juulia T. Suvilehto et al. Cross-cultural similarity in relationship-specific social touching, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2019). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2019.0467 © 2019 Science X Network Citation: Study shows British and Japanese people have very similar touching rules (2019, April 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-04-british-japanese-people-similar.html Explore further Bodily maps of touch and social relationships are tightly linkedcenter_img Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B A team of researchers with members from Finland, Japan, the U.K., Germany and Singapore has found that people from the U.K. have similar touching rules as people who live in Japan. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the group describes their study that involved querying several hundred people from the U.K. and Japan regarding touching and what they found. Relationship-specific TAMs in (a) Japan and (b) the UK. The colouring displays the proportion of the sample reporting that being touched by this person in this area is acceptable to them. (c) Comparison of the proportion of participants per culture who allow touching in different areas. Red colour in the maps indicates that Japanese participants reported that area more acceptable, blue colour indicates that British participants reported that area more acceptable. The data in (c) are thresholded at p < 0.05, FDR corrected. After FDR correction, Z threshold with no correlation assumptions varied from 3.22 to 5.98, depending on the number of participants who had that particular individual in their social network. Red and blue labels indicate female and male members of the social network, respectively. Credit: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2019). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2019.0467 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Keep it simple

first_imgAs difficult as it is to find the right kind of food for the sultry humid weather that seems to have settled around the Capital, The Imperial seems to have come up with quite a palatable solution. The summer salads and barbeque menu that is available in San Gimignano and 1911, is the perfect mix of excellent meats and refreshing salads that is perfect for the weather.  Both the restaurants have their own signature menus, the salad and barbeque spread is on offer till end of September in both places alongside their regulars. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’For the main course you can take a pick from the Fatto in Casa Salsicce Affumicate (home made smoked sausages), the Bambino Costole di Maiale alla Brace (barbecued baby back ribs), the Aragosta Alla Griglia Ripieni (grilled stuffed lobster tail) or the Costolette di Agnello doppi (the double lamb chops). The home made sausages are a definite winner along with the much ordered lamb chops.  All the meats have been cooked keeping their intrinsic flavours in mind and the whole idea is to keep the food simple so as the real taste wins, explains Executive Sous Chef Prem Kumar Pogakula who has put the spread in order. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixTrue to his word, every bite is like a burst of freshness on the palatte and the sauces and salads work as perfect additions. All the meats are served with a spread of traditional sauces –    The Campana (blend of  tomatoes ,onion, garlic, parsley, olive oil and lemon juice),  Chimichurri (Argentinean sauce with oregano  parsley ,thyme, onion, olive oil) and the Guasacaca (avocado, onion, garlic, hot peppers, tomatoes, lemon juice, coriander and olive oil). The Guasacaca is a must try. It adds the right zing to the meats and the salads. From all the salads on offer you can choose any three to accompany your meal – so take your pick from the artichoke and sundried tomato salad, corn, black beans and capsicum salad, German potato salad, tomato – basil salad, beet and onion salad, coleslaw and the mix lettuce.  A meal for two costs around Rs 8000 (without alcohol and minus taxes) so make your reservations soon. This is one meal you’ll definitely not want to miss!last_img read more

Promoting art for all

first_imgArt is nothing but expression. We as the most evolved creatures of this universe are in a continuous dialogue- at times with our own selves and often with those around. Impressions of what we think and what we perceive is what we communicate. This is what is the concept behind Arts Unlimited’s Great Masters of Europe in High Renaissance exhibition is all about. The exhibition started on 3 and will continue till 9 November at the capital’s Rabindra Bhavan. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Showcasing the works of ten upcoming artists, the exhibition is curated by Poonam Rana. It is also supporting the works of some artists from modest backgrounds. . A discerning jury will be awarding the best artist. The guests of honor include personalities from the world of fitness, fashion, art and NGOs while the participating artist are- Subrata Ganguly, Poonam Rana, Jamal Ahmed, R.YogeshwarArt is a means of a dialogue between man and man.  And what better can it be, when this dialogue serves a noble cause too. Arts Shows Unlimited believe in expanding the horizons and providing a worthy platform to display their artworks to some very promising artists, who have stayed away from display of their works, due to their modest financial backgrounds. The idea is make art accessible for everyone.Where: Lalit Kala Akedemy, Rabindra Bhawan When: On till  9 Novemberlast_img read more