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It’s a Long (Roundabout) Way from Amphioxus

first_img“Every solution breeds new problems” laments a Murphyism, and Henry Gee feels the pain.  In Nature this week,1 he delved into the growing quandary about where to put the common ancestor of starfish, sea squirts and chordates, including the vertebrates and us human beings.  His challenge is to prove the idiot’s sanity:So, if lancelets really are close relatives of echinoderms, what are the implications for our picture of deuterostome evolution?  The short answer is that the textbook scheme is turned on its head.  Rather than the steady acquisition of progressively more chordate-like (and, by implication, human-like) features from an ancestor with nothing much to recommend it, the story becomes one of persistent loss.  The last common ancestor of extant deuterostomes would have been a free-living, bilaterally symmetrical creature with a distinct throat region perforated by gill slits, segmented body-wall musculature and possibly a reasonably sophisticated brain and central nervous system.  In a sentence, the ancestor would have looked like a cross between an amphioxus and a larger, brainier, tunicate tadpole larva.  Crazy? Possibly. But possibly not. (Emphasis added in all quotes.)Reporting on phylogenetic study by Delsuc et al. from fossils and genetics in the same issue,2 the senior editor at Nature tried to be upbeat about the latest proposal, but called it another exercise in humility.  “Time and again,” he preached, “further work has exposed our prejudices for the parochial conceits that they are.” A quote from the paper by Delsuc et al. shares this view, and demonstrates the revolutionary nature of the proposed new phylogeny:The monophyly of Olfactores invalidates the traditional textbook representation of chordate, and even deuterostome, evolution as a steady increase towards complexity culminating in the highly specialized brain of vertebrates.  This anthropocentric interpretation is perhaps best reflected by the terms ‘Euchordata’ (that is, ‘true chordates’) or ‘chordates with a brain’, which are used to designate the grouping of cephalochordates and vertebrates.  Tunicates should therefore no longer be considered as ‘primitive’ but rather as derived chordates with highly specialized lifestyles and developmental modes.    Meanwhile, over in Science Now, Elizabeth Pennisi quoted some other evolutionists not quite ready to accept the new phylogenetic tree.  Calling the tunicate an “ugly sister,” Pennisi quoted experts saying the proposal will turn some heads, and the jury is still out.  She said they said, “Tunicates and larvaceans evolve rapidly and have gained and lost so many genes that it’s very hard to position them properly in an evolutionary tree.”1Henry Gee, “Evolution: Careful with that amphioxus,” Nature 439, 923-924 (23 February 2006) | doi:10.1038/439923a.2Delsuc et al., “Tunicates and not cephalochordates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates,” Nature 439, 965-968 (23 February 2006) | doi:10.1038/nature04336.Evolutionists could use a lot more humility.  They should quit the parochial school of Pope Charlie that is producing a class of lemmings who cling to crazy ideas.  What Gee is saying contradicts evolution.  This new story line puts the advanced muscles, nervous system and mobility of Amphioxus before organisms that were assumed more primitive (in the old “progressive” evolution picture), and describes subsequent evolution as a story of persistent loss.    Meanwhile, Eugenie Scott and Alan Gishlick sit on a Grand Canyon beach trying to whoop up enthusiasm for their evening song service: “It’s a long way from amphioxus / It’s a long way to us. / It’s a long way from amphioxus to the meanest human cuss. / Goodbye fins and gill slits / Hello lungs and hair! / It’s a long, long way from amphioxus, / But we come from there” (10/06/2005 commentary).  It’s even longer when you’re going backwards.  Gee’s story gives them more food for cuss.(Visited 17 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

How to Jailbreak iOS 4.2.1 on iPhone, iPad or iPod Touch

first_imgWindows 7 or Vista: C:[username]AppDataRoamingApple ComputeriTunesiPad Software Updates (or iPhone/iPod Software Updates) Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… Tags:#Apple#Features#How To#NYT#web Windows XP: C:Documents and Settings[username]Application DataApple ComputeriTunesiPad Software Updates (or iPhone/iPod Software Updates)Redsn0w should now say that the IPSW file was successfully identified. On the following screen, check “Install Cydia” then click “Next.”With the iOS device powered off and plugged into the computer, click “Next” again.Redsn0w will now provide instructions on how to put your device into DFU mode. This is a combination of key presses, that are as follows: Hold the Power button for 1 second, then without releasing it, hold the Home button for 10 seconds. Finally, release Power but keep holding Home for 15 seconds.One in DFU mode, the jailbreak will proceed automatically.Compatibility notes: This jailbreak works on all devices. On iPhone 4, iPod Touch 3 and 4, iPad and iPod Touch 2 (MC model) it will be tethered. On iPhone 3G, iPhone 3GS (older bootroom), and iPod Touch 2 (older model) it’s not tethered. iPhone unlockers should NOT jailbreak!As always, please proceed with jailbreaking at your own risk. Although relatively easy, it is a form of hacking and things can go wrong, break, crash or just not work at all. Back up your iOS device before jailbreaking in case you need to restore and make sure that critical data (contacts, notes, etc.) is also safely stored elsewhere than on your PC. sarah perez Related Posts center_img On Monday, Apple shipped its long-awaited iOS 4.2.1 update for the iPad, iPhone and iPod Touch, which was the first major upgrade for the iPad since its launch earlier this year. Finally, iPad users have access to features like multitasking, app folders, threaded messaging and a Unified Inbox, thanks to this update. It also delivered new features called AirPrint and AirPlay to all iOS devices, the former for printing from mobile devices and the latter for streaming between mobile devices and Apple TV or other AirPlay-enabled hardware.But for iPhone jailbreakers, there’s only one question that comes to mind when a new upgrade is released: can you jailbreak it?The answer this time is yes you can – and there’s no waiting to do so! However, iPhone users may want to hold off on this one. Here’s why: Although the 4.2.1 software can be jailbroken using the iPhone Dev Team’s redsn0w hacking tool, this time around it’s what’s known as a “tethered” jailbreak, at least on newer Apple devices. What that means is that if your phone ever loses power or you need to reboot your device, you have to connect it to your computer (i.e. “tether” it) in order to keep the device jailbroken. Failure to do so will result in the device resetting to an un-jailbroken state. If, for some reason, you aren’t able to reboot the device while tethered, you can still recover your jailbreak by connecting it again to your computer and then booting it using redsn0w.Simply put, it’s a huge pain.So unless you really need 4.2.1’s AirPlay or AirPrint features, we would suggest iPhone users hold off on this one, as an untethered (read: “normal”) jailbreak is in the works now. Being “tethered” is less of a hassle on iPod Touch and iPad, however, as maintaining a jailbreak isn’t as mission-critical on these devices. Nor are these devices as likely to be completely drained of battery juice like the iPhone is, especially if you make a lot of phone calls. In other words, it’s up to you on this one – jailbreak if you must or wait to upgrade.The good news is that you can still upgrade your iPad to iOS 4.2.1 to take advantage of all the new features but not have to install the same software on your iPhone. iTunes will prompt you when you connect an iPad to your computer to upgrade and you can proceed normally. When you connect your iPhone, you can just say “no” to the same prompt with no harm done. You can continue using your iPhone as usual, syncing files, etc., while still maintaining the jailbreak you already have.However, if you’re determined to proceed with the jailbreak, despite our warnings, here’s how you do it:Download the redsn0w software: Mac or Windows version (more mirrors are listed on the Dev Team blog)Upgrade to iTunes 10.1 if you haven’t already.Install the iOS 4.2.1 firmware via iTunes as usual.Run the redsn0w software executable.Redsn0w will ask you to select your IPSW file for your current firmware. Point it to one of the following, depending on your OS:Mac OS X: /~/Library/iTunes/iPad Software Updates (or iPhone/iPod Software Updates, as the case may be) Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Marketlast_img read more

Tree Authority defers Aarey cutting, seeks rehab details

first_imgThe Tree Authority (TA) on Wednesday deferred the proposal to remove 2,702 trees for the Metro car shed in Aarey Colony. The authority has asked for details related to the rehabilitation of tribals, as well as litigation on the issue. The Shiv Sena and Congress are still vociferously opposed to the proposal.Work on the Colaba-Bandra-Seepz Metro line is under way, but the proposal to build a car shed inside Aarey Colony — especially the removal of trees — has met with stiff resistance from the very beginning. The protesters have been supported by Shiv Sena leader Aaditya Thackeray and Mayor Vishwanath Mahadeshwar in the past.When the proposal was tabled before the Tree Authority earlier this month, members demanded a site visit, which took place on Tuesday. On both occasions, the Shiv Sena expressed its opposition to the car shed.Following the visit, the proposal was placed before the Tree Authority on Wednesday, but was sent back to the administration with queries. The administration will now have to table it with all the information demanded. Shiv Sena leader Yashwant Jadhav said, “There were alternatives of two other plots for the car shed. Why does Metro insist on Aarey Colony? We have received around 80,000 objections to the proposal. What are we going to do about those? Also, what about the rehabilitation of tribals in 27 hamlets? We want these answers.” The Shiv Sena has also demanded to know the status of two court cases in the matter.“In the 27 acres, trees have been cut on five acres without permission. The Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation should file a first information report against Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation Limited,” said Ravi Raja, leader of the Opposition.Congress leader Milind Deora also tweeted, “The proposal from MMRCL to cut 2,703 trees at Aarey Colony for construction of Metro car shed was discussed in the BMC’s Tree Authority today. I informed Leader of Opposition @ravirajaINC that @INCIndia must oppose this proposal. Mumbai’s environment comes first!”last_img read more