Monthly Archiv: August, 2019

Novel Superlens Offers a Simplified Subwavelength Imaging Technique

first_img Cesar Monzon of Enig Associates, Inc., in Bethesda, Maryland, has presented this new technique in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters. As Monzon explains, many (but not all) subwavelength imaging mechanisms involve a complicated implementation and offer narrowband operation, such as lenses using metamaterials. He hopes that his technique could overcome these challenges with purely resistive means, simply by using a thin electrically conducting sheet to counteract the effects of space’s filtration properties. “An important advantage of the present method is that the resolution of the image so produced is not limited by the extent of a wavelength as in a common lens, but by the separation from the image to the conducting thin sheet,” Monzon told PhysOrg.com. “In fact, the analysis presented in the paper indicates that we can easily form images 10 times sharper than a conventional lens (or 5% of a wavelength of operation). Actually, depending on the frequency of operation, achieving images that are over 20 times higher resolution than possible with diffraction limited optics seems feasible. Hence the proposed technique is that of a ‘superlens,’ because it beats the diffraction limit.”Basically, space acts like a low pass filter for highly evanescent components, and makes evanescent waves very short-lived; these waves usually decay exponentially with the distance from their light source. Monzon found that, when he placed a thin sheet of conducting material close to the light source, the sheet could restore the evanescent components of the light that had been diminished by the air in between. “Saving” these evanescent wave components results in near-field subwavelength imaging right behind the resistive sheet. The “spot size” (imaging area) depends on the separation between the light source and the sheet, meaning that extremely high resolution is possible for very small separations. As an additional benefit, the effect is found to be broadband.”An evanescent wave is essentially a near field wave component that is not propagating away from a radiator, but remains standing in its neighborhood,” Monzon explained. “Evanescent fields are responsible for the reactive energy around a radiator, and generally decay quickly with distance. Just like radiating waves, evanescent waves are a general property of wave equations, and since they basically form the near field of a radiator, they are needed for its proper reconstruction (via focusing or imaging). Now suppose we have a point radiator; if evanescent waves are not used in the reconstruction, such as done by a typical lens (which operate in the far field), then we get a diffraction limited image where the minimum spot size is commensurate with the wavelength. If on the other hand we utilize the evanescent fields, as done here, then we are not bound by a diffraction limited spot size, as the evanescent field spectrum has the ability to form the very near field. For a point radiator this means, in principle, extreme resolution, with a minimum spot size clearly a very small fraction of the wavelength, hence enabling very high resolution imaging.” (PhysOrg.com) — Since the first demonstrations of subwavelength imaging just a few years ago, scientists have been making great improvements, developing a variety of new methods for realizing high-resolution imaging. Recently, a new superlens for subwavelength imaging has been developed that offers a simplified and wide broadband operation. The superlens could potentially shrink the size of features on computer chips to make faster transistors, as well as increase the storage capacity of computer memory. Unlike in previous subwavelength imaging techniques that use surface plasmons (electron density fluctuations) and that are plagued by losses, the new technique has a different physical cause based on harnessing the spectrum of evanescent fields. As Monzon explained, the smaller wave impedance of the conducting sheet enables researchers to trade definition for amplitude.”What is shown here is that a simple conducting thin sheet acts like a special type of ‘lens’ for evanescent fields, allowing the details of a nearby image to be transferred to the other side of the sheet faithfully (this happens because accurate reconstruction of the evanescent fields of the original image takes place there),” Monzon explained. “Now, it happens that the more conducting the sheet is, the more faithful the reconstruction. However, as we know, the more conducting the sheet is, the more reflective it becomes, resulting in smaller transmitted fields, and a lower amplitude image being formed. Thus better definition can be obtained at the expense of sacrificing amplitude, and vice versa.”This technique could have useful applications, showing that micrometer or nanometer layers of resistive materials can be used to achieve subwavelength imaging in the optical and elusive infrared regions. The method could also be applied to other areas of physics where wave motion exists.”The sharper images, the simplicity of the scheme, and the broadband operation are definite advantages for applications,” Monzon said. “A superlens such as this, capable of creating images of objects or features much smaller than the wavelength of light, could be use in novel types of microscopes, of the super-resolution type. The method can also be used to shrink the size of features on computer chips, so to make smaller transistors that will result in faster computer chips. There is also potential to use this technique in computer memory technology such as read and write devices, so as to be able to access even smaller bits, which can definitely increase general storage capacity/density, and the corresponding data transfer capability.”More information: Cesar Monzon. “Subwavelength Imaging Using Conducting Sheets.” Physical Review Letters, 102, 173901 (2009).© 2009 PhysOrg.com Citation: Novel Superlens Offers a Simplified Subwavelength Imaging Technique (2009, May 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-05-superlens-subwavelength-imaging-technique.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Goal of nanoscale optical imaging gets boost with new hyperlenslast_img read more

Scientists record yoctonewton forces

first_img © 2010 PhysOrg.com The researchers, from the University of Sydney, in NSW Australia, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Colorado, USA, have used their system to measure forces three orders of magnitude smaller than any previously measured force. The forces were as small as 174 yoctonewtons, or 174 septillionths of a newton (174 x 10-24 newtons).Professor Michael Biercuk of the University of Sydney and colleagues developed their system using a Penning trap, a device in which ions are confined in two dimensions by a strong magnetic field, and in the third dimension by a weak electrostatic field. About 60 beryllium ions are held in the trap and kept very cold to eliminate motion due to thermal effects. The ions are charged and normally line up in the center of the trap. They are affected by any stray electrical or magnetic fields, which cause them to vibrate and become displaced from the center.Any movement produced by an applied force is detected by reflecting a laser off the ions and measuring any Doppler shift in the frequency of the light. (The light’s frequency is slightly higher when the ion is moving towards the detector, and lower when moving away.) The detection system was able to measure the strength forces in the yoctonewtons range.Until the present experiment, the smallest forces ever measured were in the attonewton range (10-18 newtons). These measurements were made coupling micro- or nano-fabricated resonators to systems such as single-electron transistors, or superconducting microwave cavities. The ability to detect tiny forces is important for applications such as tests of fundamental physical phenomena and precision spin-resonance imaging.The researchers hope to eventually be able to measure a single yoctonewton by using a single beryllium ion in the trap, and they believe their experiments will lead to the development of a new class of sensors based on trapped ions. Their results are published online in the pre-publication blog ArXiv. Scientists develop novel ion trap for sensing force and light Explore further Citation: Scientists record yoctonewton forces (2010, April 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-04-scientists-yoctonewton.htmlcenter_img (PhysOrg.com) — Scientists in Australia and the US have discovered that trapped ions are “exquisitely sensitive” force detectors, and have used them to record the tiniest forces ever measured. Phase-coherent Doppler velocimetry. (a) Atomic resonance employed for detection of ionmotion, 19 MHz. (b) Schematic of the Doppler-detection system based on photon-arrival-time measurements. (c) Schematic of pulse sequencing/triggering for phase-coherent detection. (d) Histogram of photon arrival times relative to start-pulses generated synchronously with an RF excitation of the COM mode on resonance. Photon arrivals are bunched with periodicity given by the driven COM oscillation period, and su er hardware delays. Solid blue line is an exponential t to the data used to remove a background scattering rate. Figure credit: Michael J. Biercuk et al., ArXiv, http://arxiv.org/abs/1004.0780 (see paper for details) This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Report shows data centers not using as much power as projected

first_img Citation: Report shows data centers not using as much power as projected (2011, August 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-08-centers-power.html A new report commissioned by the New York Times, shows that electricity consumption used by data centers in the United States and around the world grew at a much slower pace then was predicted by a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report released in 2007. The slower pace is attributed to both a downturn in the economy and improved efficiency in data servers. More information: www.analyticspress.com/datacenters.html U.S. Data Centers Consume 45 Billion kWh Annually, Study The report, written by Jonathan G. Koomey consulting professor to Stanford University, shows that instead of doubling, as the EPA predicted, energy consumption by data centers (over the period 2005 to 2010) in the United States grew at just 35%, while consumption worldwide grew at the much higher rate of 56%. Koomey attributes the lower than expected results to a downturn in the global economy and to advances in server technology, the result of which was fewer new servers going online during the study period than was predicted by the EPA.Called “Growth in Data Center Power Use 2005 to 2010” the study that led to the report was designed to figure out as much about power use by data servers as is possible using publicly available records. In addition to ascertaining how many servers have been brought online in the past five years, Koomey also learned that data centers now account for approximately 1.7 to 2.2 percent of all electricity consumed in the United States and 1.1 to 1.5 for the world. In an interesting side note, Koomey also discovered that Google, the online search giant apparently accounts for just 1% of the total amount of electricity used by data centers in the United States, a figure that indicates its servers are far more efficient than the standards used by most others in the industry.Koomey notes that increased use of server virtualization (a technique whereby fewer computers are used to run the same number of programs) by many companies implementing cloud computing platforms resulted in fewer servers being installed, and thus less energy use than would have been needed had standard technology been installed. Also, increased attention to cooling methods likely played a part, as cooling typically accounts for up to half of a data centers energy use. The result of these measures, when combined with the lower demand for computing resources due to the slowdown of the economy, resulted in the lower numbers seen in the report; though Koomey points out, it’s still a lot of electricity and data server power requirements are only likely to continue growing as cloud based computing appears to be the wave of the future. One company with its eye on the problem is Microsoft who in a recent paper, proposed installing “Data Furnaces” in the basements of homes across the country.center_img © 2010 PhysOrg.com Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Cambridge team exposes EMV card vulnerabilities

first_img(Phys.org)—At a cryptography gathering in Leuven, Belgium, on Tuesday, Cambridge University researchers made it known that they do not like what they see in chip and pin systems. Banks rely on customer confidence in their word that chip and pin systems are safe, but the researchers tell quite a different story. Part of the problem has to do with the number generators, which the researchers give a failing grade. Each time a customer is involved in a chip and pin transaction, withdrawing cash or buying goods, a unique unpredictable number is created to authenticate the transaction. The unpredictable number, generated by software, is supposed to be chosen at random. But researchers say the number is highly predictable, because dates or timestamps had been used. www.lightbluetouchpaper.org/20 … the-pre-play-attack/www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~rja14/Papers/unattack.pdf Explore further © 2012 Phys.org More information: Their paper, “Chip and Skim: Cloning EMV Cards with the Pre-play Attack” presents the troubling details of weaknesses in protocol and random number generation which leave customers in the cold as fraud victims. “EMV” is the name given to the system from its original developers Europay, MasterCard and Visa. The system is also known as chip and pin, and is the leading system for card payments, in Europe, much of Asia, and starting to be used in North America. Payment cards contain a chip so they can execute an authentication protocol. POS terminals or ATMs generate the unpredictable number, for each transaction to ensure it is fresh. Some EMV implementers have merely used counters, timestamps or home-grown algorithms to supply this number. This exposes them to a pre-play attack, say the Cambridge team. The researchers find it shocking that many ATMs and point-of-sale terminals have “seriously defective” random number generators, often “just counters.”The study authors also point to a key shortcoming at the protocol level where “the party depending upon freshness in the protocol is not the party responsible for generating it.” Although the issuing bank is depending on the merchant for transaction freshness, they said, the merchant “may not be incentivised to provide it, may not be able to deliver it correctly due to lack of end-to-end authentication with the issuer, and might even be collusive (directly or indirectly).”The study team’s harshest words are for those banks that “suppress information about known vulnerabilities, with the result that fraud victims continue to be denied refunds.” The researchers argue the lack of fairness when any customer who complains of fraud may be told by the bank that since EMVs are secure, the victim is mistaken “or lying when they dispute card transactions.” And yet, said the study, “again and again, the banks have turned out to be wrong.” One vulnerability after another has been discovered and exploited by criminals. They said it has mostly been left to independent security researchers to identify what is happening and to spread the word.The researchers said that, in looking for solutions, it would not be practical to turn to what is a slow and complex negotiation process between merchants, banks and vendors. “It is time for bank regulators to take an interest,” they said. “It’s welcome that the US Federal Reserve is now paying attention, and time for European regulators to follow suit.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Cambridge researchers show Chip and PIN system vulnerable to fraud Citation: Cambridge team exposes EMV card vulnerabilities (2012, September 13) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-09-cambridge-team-exposes-emv-card.htmllast_img read more

An elastomer that behaves like an artificial muscle

first_imgThe polymer’s self-healing properties were tested by first cutting it into two pieces and then allowing it to re-from. The authors found that the cut on the polymer film was not discernable after being allowed to “heal” at room temperature for forty-eight hours. The polymer spontaneously healed at low temperatures, -20oC, without the addition of additives that would promote polymerization, something that is unprecedented for an autonomous, self-healing polymer. Finally, the Fe-Hpdca-PDMS polymer showed excellent potential as a model system for artificial muscles. Li, et al. punctured the polymer with a sharp object and marked the area of damage. They then let the polymer self-heal for seventy-two hours. After this time, they applied a square-wave high-voltage signal through electrodes with a high enough potential that the polymer began to deform. However, despite the damage, the polymer did not show a dielectric breakdown, even at the location where it was punctured. This polymer has many properties that make it a compelling model system for an artificial muscle. It displays high stretchability and flexibility. It self-heals and has a high dielectric strength. The polymer can be tuned by changing the ligand-to-metal molar ratio as well as adding functional groups to the ligand, two things that the authors report could be explored in future studies. Image of a stretchable autonomous self-healing polymer. Credit: Zhenan Bao Play Self-healing artificial muscle. Credit: Zhenan Bao The Fe-Hpdca-PDMS polymer showed remarkable mechanical strength, stretchability, and recovery. When the polymer was stretched, then allowed to rest for an hour, and then stretched again, it showed almost full recovery of its original shape. It also showed recovery after a cyclic stress test. When the polymer was subjected to stretching for an hour, it took a little longer to recover and did not quite return to its original state. Notably, the authors report that their polymer can withstand a much higher strain before breaking than typical crosslinked PDMS polymers or reported elastomers. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org)—Animal muscle needs to be strong enough to endure strain; it must also be flexible and elastic; and it is self-healing. Finding a polymer that has all of these properties has proved challenging. However, researchers from Stanford, Nanjing University, UC Riverside, Harvard, and the University of Colorado have reported the synthesis of an elastomer that mimics the properties of animal muscle. Their polymer, is also stable at room temperature and not sensitive to water. Their work appears in Nature Chemistry. Efforts to create polymers that mimic the properties of biological muscle have come short of being practically useful. Often the bonding involved in making these polymers must be sufficiently strong to serve as actuators, but weak enough for reversible self-healing. Many models, to date, involve hydrogen bonding, but hydrogen bonds are sensitive to water. Li, et al. have, instead, exploited metal-ligand interactions as a way to mimic muscle properties.The ligand 2,6-pyridinedicarboxamide (pdca)binds to Fe(III) via the pyridyl nitrogen and the nitrogen and oxygen on the carboxamides. Two pdca molecules coordinate to one Fe(III) atom through six coordination sites. Two of the sites are strong bonds (the pyridyl), two sites are “medium” strength bonds (the amides), and two are weak bonds (the carboxyl). Calculations of bond strength show that the strong bonds are similar to covalent bonds, while the weak Fe-O bonds are similar to hydrogen bonding. This multi-bonding structure, as it turns out, provides an excellent framework for making an elastomer.The ligand was then tethered to a poly(dimethylsiloxane), or PDMS, polymer backbone. Two of these polymer strands were held together through a coordinated Fe(III) atom. Force calculations of the PDMS-tethered, crosslinked polymer confirmed that by having bonds of multiple strengths next to each other, the weaker bonds can readily break and re-form, which is conducive for stretching and self-healing. But the Fe(III) can remain near the ligand through the stronger coordination sites, allowing for rapid re-formation after unfolding. Explore further PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Citation: An elastomer that behaves like an artificial muscle (2016, May 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-05-elastomer-artificial-muscle.html More information: Cheng-Hui Li et al. A highly stretchable autonomous self-healing elastomer, Nature Chemistry (2016). DOI: 10.1038/nchem.2492AbstractIt is a challenge to synthesize materials that possess the properties of biological muscles—strong, elastic and capable of self-healing. Herein we report a network of poly(dimethylsiloxane) polymer chains crosslinked by coordination complexes that combines high stretchability, high dielectric strength, autonomous self-healing and mechanical actuation. The healing process can take place at a temperature as low as −20 °C and is not significantly affected by surface ageing and moisture. The crosslinking complexes used consist of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxamide ligands that coordinate to Fe(III) centres through three different interactions: a strong pyridyl–iron one, and two weaker carboxamido–iron ones through both the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of the carboxamide groups. As a result, the iron–ligand bonds can readily break and re-form while the iron centres still remain attached to the ligands through the stronger interaction with the pyridyl ring, which enables reversible unfolding and refolding of the chains. We hypothesize that this behaviour supports the high stretchability and self-healing capability of the material. © 2016 Phys.org Researchers create super stretchy, self-healing material that could lead to artificial muscle Journal information: Nature Chemistrylast_img read more

Study shows British and Japanese people have very similar touching rules

first_img Most everyone is aware of their own boundaries regarding touching. We like to be touched by people we know and love but cringe if touched inappropriately by a stranger. We also know that we have our own personal rules about who can touch us where and when. But what is not clear is the role that reinforcement of social structure by touching plays in our daily lives. People shake hands as a form of greeting, for example, and in some situations actually hug one another—even strangers. In this new effort, the researchers sought to learn more about how social touch is involved in social network maintenance and reinforcement. To find out, they asked 386 people from the U.K. and 255 people from Japan to sit in front of a computer to answer questions about where it was permissible for people in their lives to touch them and under what circumstances.Not surprisingly, the researchers found that people from both cultures do not like to be touched by people they do not know—most reported that the only acceptable means of doing so was via handshake when meeting someone new. People of both cultures also reported being uncomfortable with seemingly innocuous touching, such as on the arm. On the other end of the spectrum, people from both cultures reported that they were comfortable with romantic partners touching them anyplace on their body. For those people who were neither strangers nor romantic partners, people from both cultures reported feeling more comfortable with touching the closer the bond was with a given individual. Also, the researchers reported that people from both cultures were more comfortable being touched by somebody female, than somebody male, in general. The one difference they found between the two cultures was British people reported feeling more pleasure at being touched socially than did the people from Japan. More information: Juulia T. Suvilehto et al. Cross-cultural similarity in relationship-specific social touching, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2019). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2019.0467 © 2019 Science X Network Citation: Study shows British and Japanese people have very similar touching rules (2019, April 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-04-british-japanese-people-similar.html Explore further Bodily maps of touch and social relationships are tightly linkedcenter_img Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B A team of researchers with members from Finland, Japan, the U.K., Germany and Singapore has found that people from the U.K. have similar touching rules as people who live in Japan. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the group describes their study that involved querying several hundred people from the U.K. and Japan regarding touching and what they found. Relationship-specific TAMs in (a) Japan and (b) the UK. The colouring displays the proportion of the sample reporting that being touched by this person in this area is acceptable to them. (c) Comparison of the proportion of participants per culture who allow touching in different areas. Red colour in the maps indicates that Japanese participants reported that area more acceptable, blue colour indicates that British participants reported that area more acceptable. The data in (c) are thresholded at p < 0.05, FDR corrected. After FDR correction, Z threshold with no correlation assumptions varied from 3.22 to 5.98, depending on the number of participants who had that particular individual in their social network. Red and blue labels indicate female and male members of the social network, respectively. Credit: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2019). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2019.0467 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Researchers find a way to produce freestanding films of perovskite oxides

first_img “Through our successful fabrication of ultrathin perovskite oxides down to the monolayer limit, we’ve created a new class of two-dimensional materials,” says Xiaoqing Pan, professor of materials science & engineering and Henry Samueli Endowed Chair in Engineering at UCI. “Since these crystals have strongly correlated effects, we anticipate they will exhibit qualities similar to graphene that will be foundational to next-generation energy and information technologies.” Credit: Xiaoqing Pan / UCI Explore further Growth and transfer of ultrathin freestanding SrTiO3 films. a, Schematic of a film with an SAO buffer layer. b, The sacrificial SAO layer is dissolved in water to release the top oxide films with the mechanical support of PDMS. c, New heterostructures and interfaces are formed when the freestanding film is transferred onto the desired substrate. d, e, Atomically resolved cross-sectional (d) and low-magnification plan-view (e) HAADF images of a two-unit-cell freestanding STO film transferred to a silicon wafer and a holey carbon TEM grid, respectively. f, g, Atomically resolved cross-sectional (f) and low-magnification planview (g) HAADF images of a representative four-unit-cell freestanding STO film, showing the excellent flexibility of ultrathin freestanding films. Credit: Nature (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1255-7 More information: Dianxiang Ji et al. Freestanding crystalline oxide perovskites down to the monolayer limit, Nature (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1255-7Press release © 2019 Science X Network Birkhölzer and Koster point out that the work done by the combined Chinese and American team demonstrated that it is possible to produce at least some transition-metal oxides in a thin film format. Their research also allayed fears that such a film would collapse, making it unusable. Birkhölzer and Koster point out that many new materials are made by going to extremes—making them really big or really small. Making them small has led to many recent discoveries, they note, including a technique to make graphene. One area of research has focused on ways to produce transition-metal oxides in a thinner format. It has been slow going, however, due to their crystalline nature. Unlike some materials, transition-metal oxides do not naturally form into layers with a top layer that can be peeled off. Instead, they form in strongly bonded 3-D structures. Because of this, some in the field have worried that it might never be possible to produce them in desired forms. But now, the researchers with this new effort have found a way to produce two transition-metal oxides (perovskite oxides strontium titanate and bismuth ferrite) in a thin-film format.The process developed by the researchers involved using molecular beam epitaxy to apply a buffer layer onto a substrate followed by a layer of perovskite. Once the sandwich of materials was made, the researchers used water to dissolve the buffer layer, allowing the perovskite to be removed and placed onto other substrates. The researchers report that their process worked so well they were able to extract films of perovskite near the theoretical limit—one square unit cell (with approximately 0.4-nanometer sides).center_img Citation: Researchers find a way to produce free-standing films of perovskite oxides (2019, June 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-06-free-standing-perovskite-oxides.html Journal information: Nature A team of researchers from Nanjing University in China, the University of Nebraska and the University of California in the U.S. has found a way to produce free-standing films of perovskite oxide. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the group describes the process they developed and how well it worked when tested. Yorick Birkhölzer and Gertjan Koster from the University of Twente have published a News and Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. Inorganic perovskite absorbers for use in thin-film solar cells This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Judge In Opioid Trial Rules Johnson John

first_imgJudge In Opioid Trial Rules Johnson & Johnson Must Pay… Sue Ogrocki https://ondemand.npr.org/anon.npr-mp3/npr/atc/2019/08/20190826_atc_oklahoma_opio…center_img by NPR News Jackie Fortier, Brian Mann 8.26.19 6:31pm Updated at 6:00 p.m. ETAn Oklahoma judge has ruled that drugmaker Johnson & Johnson helped ignite the state’s opioid crisis by deceptively marketing painkillers, and must pay $572 million to the state.Oklahoma sought $17.5 billion, blaming Johnson & Johnson for fueling the crisis that has claimed the lives of more than 6,000 people in the state.It’s the first ruling to hold a pharmaceutical company responsible for one of the worst drug epidemics in American history.Judge Thad Balkman delivered his decision from the bench, after presiding over a seven-week civil trial in the college town of Norman, Okla.”The defendants caused an opioid crisis that is evidenced by increased rates of addiction, overdose deaths and neonatal abstinence syndrome in Oklahoma,” Judge Balkman said in a statement.Johnson & Johnson immediately released a statement saying that the company “plans to appeal the opioid judgment in Oklahoma.”Oklahoma Attorney General Mike Hunter’s suit alleged that Johnson & Johnson, through its pharmaceutical subsidiary Janssen, helped ignite a public health crisis that has killed thousands of state residents.Balkman said in the ruling that the state made its case that Johnson & Johnson contributed to the state’s opioid crisis, affirming the key legal argument of the state’s case, that the drugmaker had created a “public nuisance.””The state met its burden,” Balkman said, proving the company acted improperly with its “misleading marketing and promotion of opioids.””This is a temporary public nuisance that can be abated and the proper remedy for the public nuisance is equitable abatement,” he said in a statement.Johnson & Johnson argues that the facts don’t support the judge’s finding.”This judgment is a misapplication of public nuisance law that has already been rejected by judges in other states,” said Michael Ullmann, executive vice president, general counsel for Johnson & Johnson, in a statement. “The unprecedented award for the state’s ‘abatement plan’ has sweeping ramifications for many industries and bears no relation to the company’s medicines or conduct.”Attorney General Hunter celebrated the state’s win, despite the discrepancy between the $572 million award and the billions the state had asked for.”It’s going to be an important step forward in dealing with the epidemic,” he told reporters. “Certainly we would have liked to walk out of here with $17 billion, but realistically we’ve been able to get together almost a billion dollars to help Oklahoma.”Initially, Hunter’s lawsuit included Purdue Pharma, the maker of OxyContin. In March, Purdue Pharma settled with the state for $270 million. Soon after, Hunter dropped all but one of the civil claims, including fraud, against the two remaining defendants.Just two days before the trial began, another defendant, Teva Pharmaceuticals of Jerusalem, announced an $85 million settlement with the state.Both companies deny any wrongdoing.Johnson & Johnson marketed the opioid painkillers Duragesic and Nucynta. Lawyers for the company say its products were highly regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, among other agencies, and that the state did not provide any evidence showing the company’s sales practices helped fuel the crisis. It argued these branded opioid products made up less than 1% of total opioid prescriptions in Oklahoma.As NPR reported in July, during the trial the state’s expert witness, Dr. Andrew Kolodny, testified that Johnson & Johnson also profited by manufacturing raw ingredients for opioids and then selling them to other companies, including Purdue, which makes Oxycontin.Speaking on behalf of Janssen and Johnson & Johnson Monday, attorney Sabrina Strong told reporters that “litigation is not the answer” to the opioid crisis.”Johnson & Johnson did not cause the opioid crisis. Although it includes some diversion of prescription medicine, it’s largely driven by illegally manufactured drugs that are coming into the country from Mexico and elsewhere,” she said.The case is being closely watched by plaintiffs in other opioid lawsuits, particularly the roughly 2,000 cases in the National Prescription Opiate Litigation which is pending before a federal judge in Ohio. That consolidated lawsuit includes 22 defendants — opioid manufacturers and distributors, including Johnson & Johnson.In a statement, the co-lead plaintiff attorneys of the Ohio litigation called today’s ruling a “milestone,” saying the ruling in favor of Oklahoma’s public nuisance claims is a “critical step forward” for the communities they represent.”The ruling in favor of the State of Oklahoma’s public nuisance claims confirms what communities have been saying for some time: the opioid epidemic significantly interfered with public health,” said the attorneys, Paul T. Farrell Jr., Paul J. Hanly, Jr., and Joseph F. Rice.Copyright 2019 NPR. To see more, visit NPR.last_img read more

Keep it simple

first_imgAs difficult as it is to find the right kind of food for the sultry humid weather that seems to have settled around the Capital, The Imperial seems to have come up with quite a palatable solution. The summer salads and barbeque menu that is available in San Gimignano and 1911, is the perfect mix of excellent meats and refreshing salads that is perfect for the weather.  Both the restaurants have their own signature menus, the salad and barbeque spread is on offer till end of September in both places alongside their regulars. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’For the main course you can take a pick from the Fatto in Casa Salsicce Affumicate (home made smoked sausages), the Bambino Costole di Maiale alla Brace (barbecued baby back ribs), the Aragosta Alla Griglia Ripieni (grilled stuffed lobster tail) or the Costolette di Agnello doppi (the double lamb chops). The home made sausages are a definite winner along with the much ordered lamb chops.  All the meats have been cooked keeping their intrinsic flavours in mind and the whole idea is to keep the food simple so as the real taste wins, explains Executive Sous Chef Prem Kumar Pogakula who has put the spread in order. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixTrue to his word, every bite is like a burst of freshness on the palatte and the sauces and salads work as perfect additions. All the meats are served with a spread of traditional sauces –    The Campana (blend of  tomatoes ,onion, garlic, parsley, olive oil and lemon juice),  Chimichurri (Argentinean sauce with oregano  parsley ,thyme, onion, olive oil) and the Guasacaca (avocado, onion, garlic, hot peppers, tomatoes, lemon juice, coriander and olive oil). The Guasacaca is a must try. It adds the right zing to the meats and the salads. From all the salads on offer you can choose any three to accompany your meal – so take your pick from the artichoke and sundried tomato salad, corn, black beans and capsicum salad, German potato salad, tomato – basil salad, beet and onion salad, coleslaw and the mix lettuce.  A meal for two costs around Rs 8000 (without alcohol and minus taxes) so make your reservations soon. This is one meal you’ll definitely not want to miss!last_img read more

Promoting art for all

first_imgArt is nothing but expression. We as the most evolved creatures of this universe are in a continuous dialogue- at times with our own selves and often with those around. Impressions of what we think and what we perceive is what we communicate. This is what is the concept behind Arts Unlimited’s Great Masters of Europe in High Renaissance exhibition is all about. The exhibition started on 3 and will continue till 9 November at the capital’s Rabindra Bhavan. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Showcasing the works of ten upcoming artists, the exhibition is curated by Poonam Rana. It is also supporting the works of some artists from modest backgrounds. . A discerning jury will be awarding the best artist. The guests of honor include personalities from the world of fitness, fashion, art and NGOs while the participating artist are- Subrata Ganguly, Poonam Rana, Jamal Ahmed, R.YogeshwarArt is a means of a dialogue between man and man.  And what better can it be, when this dialogue serves a noble cause too. Arts Shows Unlimited believe in expanding the horizons and providing a worthy platform to display their artworks to some very promising artists, who have stayed away from display of their works, due to their modest financial backgrounds. The idea is make art accessible for everyone.Where: Lalit Kala Akedemy, Rabindra Bhawan When: On till  9 Novemberlast_img read more